segunda-feira, 24 de dezembro de 2007

Hannah Höch

Grande artista dadaísta alemã.

Fabulosa nas fotomontagens e colagens.

"Ela reflectiu nas suas obras a justaposição entre a mulher alemã moderna e a mulher alemã colonial. Ao fazê-lo desafiou as representações culturais das mulheres, levantando questões relativamente à sexualidade das mulheres e aos seus papéis de género na nova sociedade. Com as suas imagens Hoch abordou os medos, possibilidades e as novas esperanças para as mulheres na Alemanha moderna."

terça-feira, 11 de dezembro de 2007



Common Myths

On this page are a few myths regarding copyright law as it applies to collage, along with brief responses and pointers to more detailed information. If you have more information that you think should be added to this page, or you know of other myths that ought to be addressed, please e-mail me.
Collage is considered fair use, and therefore not subject to copyright law.The doctrine of fair use protects educational and scholarly purposes such as news reporting, literary criticism, and libraries. Artistic uses are not explicitly protected by fair use, and commercial uses are explicitly not protected. See the
fair use page for more information.
My collage can freely use copyrighted material, as long as I use no more than 5% / 10% / a small amount of the original work.The doctrine of "de minimis" theoretically protects minimal copying, but it's vague and difficult to pin down. See the
derivative work page for more information.
I can use copyrighted material in my collage, as long as I don't reproduce it / make only a few copies / give it away / donate the profits to charity.Collage is considered a derivative work, sometimes called a "new version" of the original work. The US Copyright Office says that "Only the owner of copyright in a work has the right to prepare, or to authorize someone else to create, a new version of that work." If you are infringing on someone's copyright, the lack of blatantly commercial purposes may decrease your risk of damages in the case of a lawsuit. But infringement is still infringement. See the
derivative work page for more information.
If something is published without a copyright notice / on display in a public place / posted on the Internet, it's not copyrighted, and therefore free for the taking.Since 1989, anything that can be copyrighted is automatically copyrighted, as soon as it is created in a tangible form. (Yes, "tangible" includes the Internet.) See the
duration of copyright page for more information.
My collage is a parody, therefore it is protected.According to the Copyright Office, fair use does protect "use in a parody of some of the content of the work parodied." But there are two things to remember. First, the use must be a legitimate parody of the prior work. For example, using images of Barbie to parody Barbie is a fair use. Using images of Barbie to make a statement about society in general, where another doll would do just as well, is not. Second, parody is a form of cultural criticism, but not every cultural criticism is a parody. Is the usage truly a parody? Would a court agree? Think hard about that before relying on parody to protect your work. For more information on parody, see the articles by
Publishing Law Center and the law firm Cowan, Liebowitz & Latman, P.C..
I can protect my intellectual property rights by mailing copies of my creative works to myself and saving the unopened, postmarked envelopes.This pernicious myth is called "poor man's copyright" and it has no benefit to the copyright holder. None whatsoever. It doesn't matter if you keep the envelopes in a safe deposit box, give them to your lawyer, or bury them in a time capsule. A postmarked envelope has no value in protecting your intellectual property. Copyright applies automatically to your work, but if you are concerned about infringement against you, it's worth the small fee to register your work with the Copyright Office. See the
Copyright Authority website for more information on poor man's copyright.
This legal mumbo jumbo is all well and good, but it only really matters to the big boys. No one's going to sue me.Many artists assume that if they have no substantial assets, then they have nothing to lose, so no one would bother to sue them. It's true that you can't pay money you don't have. But you could be forced to cease publication, shut down your web site, or even to destroy all copies of art which includes copyright infringement.
Some artists get away with ignoring copyright, how can I do it?If you think I'm going to publicly advise artists on how to circumvent the law, you're crazier than I am! The purpose of this page is to collect information for collage artists who want to work with copyright law, not work around it.

Continue a ler aqui: =)

Copyright for Collage Artists

What's new at "Copyright for Collage Artists":
Added items to the
myths page about parody and the poor man's copyright.
Added a couple of links to the
links page.
If, like me, you are a collage artist, then copyright is probably a matter of great concern to you. (If it isn't, then it should be!) Many artists seem to feel that thinking about legal niceties, like copyright, will inhibit their creative flow. Personally, I think it's best to understand potential legal issues ahead of time. That way, the artist is able to focus on his/her work without the intrusion of fear of a lawsuit. That's why it's imperative to consider copyright issues before beginning a collage which might someday be published. Unfortunately, copyright law is a murky and confusing issue. There are all kinds of myths floating around, which the naive artist may assume are true because someone they trust told them. The laws themselves are so complicated that when researching on one's own, it's difficult to get clear answers.
Though I am not a lawyer, I have done a fair amount of research into copyright law as it applies to collage in the past few years. I have collected the information I have learned onto this page, to help others who wonder about the same questions I do. Please understand that this page is not intended to offer legal advice. I am not a lawyer; the information on this page is nothing more than my personal interpretation of US copyright law. I have only included information that can be verified, mainly at the US Copyright Office website. There's enough misinformation floating around as it is; my hope with this page is to dispel some myths, not add to them. I have included links where appropriate so you can get it "straight from the horse's mouth" and decide for yourself whether you agree with my assessment.
I hope this page will serve as a starting point for people who are researching copyright on their own. If you are working on a collage that you hope to someday publish, there is no substitute for a good legal consultation. It may seem like a lot of money, but it's dirt cheap compared with the heartbreak of being told by a publisher that you must completely redo your work to eliminate copyrighted material -- or worse yet, receiving a letter from the lawyers of someone whose copyright you have inadvertently infringed.
I welcome your feedback if you see an error on these pages, have some information you'd like to see added, or want to tell me you liked or hated the page. Send me e-mail to, or use the handy form. If you have information on copyright law, please include a reference I can check. Thanks for your assistance in keeping this page useful and up-to-date.


Kyle Reed makes me want to make my own collage illustrations by attacking a stack of magazines with an x-acto knife. Something tells me, though, that I wouldn’t create anything as cool as his work.


Wangechi Mutu uses collage as a means of both physically and conceptually bringing layered depth to her work. Using images cut from fashion magazines, National Geographic, and books about African art, Mutu pieces together figures which are both elegant and perverse. Individual body parts comprised of found ‘objects’ are made to seem like odd prosthetics glued over torsos and limbs drawn in ink.”